The most obvious and damaging problem is toll fraud. Traditionally phone phreaks enjoyed free calls by abusing security flaws within the phone company's system as well as private companies' PABXs. By gaining access to an extension line which can make international calls, an attacker will be able to run large bills on the victim's account. On the other hand, the social engineering aspect should not be under estimated. Social engineering can be a very effective and reliable method that allows hackers to pull off some of the most interesting (sometimes amusing) attacks ever. From ordering free pizza as someone else, to hijacking the help desk's number and then asking for user's passwords, such attacks rely on human nature and can probably never be totally prevented.The purpose of svcrack is very straightforward.This tool will launch a password guessing attack extensions on the SIP registrar. Attackers will be after your SIP passwords because such knowledge allows them to:
- Get free long distance calls
- Hijack and spoof phone calls
- Eat your spaghetti
This is how svcrack works:
- It starts sending REGISTER requests to register a specific extension line
- In the mean time the SIP server starts responding back asking for authentication.
- The response also contains a nonce, which is a unique number or bit string that should only be used once. This nonce is used as the challenge in the challenge-response mechanism.
- Svcrack uses the nonce and other properties to compute the challenge response then sends that back to the server
Svcrack will repeat the above procedure until the password gets cracked and an OK message is recieved, or until there are no more passwords to try.
During testing, we were able to run speeds up to 80 passwords per second - that is 6,912,000 passwords a day. These numbers are dependent on the SIP registrar and of course, on a real network, latency and other factors will seriously affect these results. Some registrars allow the attacker to reuse the nonce. This makes the registrar servers vulnerable to replay attacks. This feature is also useful during password cracking, since it can make the process faster. In fact, svcrack has an option which allows auditors to exploit this feature and possibly achieve faster speed.